This recipe is either quick or not, depending on whether you have chicken broth around. And I don't mean the stuff you buy at the store, although it can make a quick soup when you are desperate and only have 1/2 hour. Even if you only have the shorter time, I still recommend you make your own noodles. Really, it's not that hard and makes ALL the difference.
Bring the broth to a simmer in a saucepan and put in all ingredients except for the noodles. Simmer for 15 minutes. Add the noodles. Simmer until tender, 5-10 minutes. Either pull out the garlic cloves or just warn your guests. Serve with crackers.
You can chop parsley, say 1/8 C or so, and toss in just after the noodles. You can add green leafy veggies like kale or chard with the other vegetables. They look best if sliced in strips. Or add spinach when you add the noodles.
In a pinch you can use canned chicken. That's desperation talking. If you must, you must, but don't add the canned chicken until the very end, just long enough to heat through. It's already cooked.
If you have more vegetables lying around to get rid of, consider chicken stew